Java was developed in the 1990s by a team of programmers headed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems . Unlike conventional programming languages, which are compiled into native code, the Java language is compiled into a bytecode that is executed by a virtual machine. The Java programming language is the conventional language of the Java Platform, but it is not its only language.
In 1991, at Sun Microsystems, the Green Project, the cradle of Java, an object-oriented programming language was started. The project’s mentors were Patrick Naughton, Mike Sheridan, and James Gosling. They believed that eventually there would be a convergence of computers with the equipment and appliances often used by people in their daily lives.
To prove the viability of this idea, 13 people worked hard for 18 months. In the summer of 1992 they emerged from an office in Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, with a functional demonstration of the initial idea. The prototype was called * 7 (reads “Star Seven”), a remote control with a graphic touchscreen interface. For the * 7, a mascot was created, now widely known in the Java world, the Duke. Duke’s work in the * 7 was to be a virtual guide by helping and teaching the user to use the equipment. * 7 had the ability to control various devices and applications. James Gosling has specified a new programming language for * 7. Gosling decided to call it “Oak,” which means oak, a tree he could watch as he looked through his window.
The next step was to find a market for Starseven. The team thought a good idea would be to control televisions and video on demand with the equipment. They built a demonstration called MovieWood, but unfortunately it was too early for on-demand video as well as cable companies to make the deal viable. The idea that * 7 tried to sell, today is already a reality in interactive programs and also in digital television. Allowing the viewer to interact with the broadcaster and programming on a large cable network was very visionary and far from what cable TV companies were able to understand and buy. The right idea at the wrong time.
However, the internet overflow happened and quickly a large interactive network was settling. It was this kind of interactive network that the * 7 team was trying to sell to cable companies. And, overnight, it was no longer necessary to build the infrastructure for the network, it was simply there. Gosling was commissioned to adapt Oak to the internet and in January 1995 a new version of Oak was released that was renamed to Java. Java technology had been designed to move through networks of heterogeneous devices such as the Internet. Now applications could be run inside the browsers in the Java Applets and everything would be made available on the internet instantly. It was the static HTML of browsers that promoted the rapid spread of dynamic Java technology.
Since its launch in May 1995, the Java platform has been adopted faster than any other programming language in the history of computing. In 2004 Java reached the mark of 3 million developers worldwide. Java continued to grow and today is a benchmark in the software development market. Java has become popular for its use on the internet and today has its execution environment present in browsers, mainframes, operating systems, mobile phones, palmtops, smart cards, etc.
The Java language was designed with the following objectives in mind:
- Object Orientation – Based on the Simulate Model
- Portability – Platform independence – “write once, run anywhere” ( “write once, run anywhere” )
- Network Features – Has extensive library of routines that facilitate cooperation with TCP / IP protocols such as HTTP and FTP
- Security – You can run programs over the network with enforcement restrictions
In addition, other advantages presented by the language can be highlighted:
- Syntax similar to C / C ++ / C #
- Internationalization Features – Supports Unicode characters natively
- Simplicity in specifying both the language and the “environment” execution (JVM)
- It is distributed with a vast set of libraries (or APIs)
- It has facilities for creation of distributed programs and multitasking (multiple lines of execution in the same program)
- Automatic memory deallocation by garbage collector process
- Code Dynamic Load – Java programs are made up of a collection of independently stored classes that can be loaded at the time of use
Acquisition by Oracle
In 2009, Oracle Corporation acquires Java language company Sun Microsystems for $ 7.4 billion to bring Java and other Sun products to consumers.
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