Learning Pascal / Object Pascal (programming language)

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Hello Master Programming Staff  Today Let’s learn a little more about the Pascal Programming Languageor Object Pascal this  programming language is  very good for creating programs and applications.
The Object Pascal was established in 1970 by the Swiss Niklaus Wirth , keeping in mind to encourage the use of structured code. Niklaus Wirth himself says that the Pascal language was created simultaneously to teach structured programming and to be used in his software factory. At the same time, the language reflects Wirth’s personal liberation from the restrictions imposed after his involvement with the specification of ALGOL 68, and his suggestion for this specification, ALGOL W. 
In the 1980s , the Turbo Pascal language , initially available for computers based on 8086 architecture (with 8080 versions at the start).

Object Pascal is a branch of Pascal-derived languages, with object-oriented support. The main tool for programming in Object Pascal is the Delphi Embarcadero IDE. It was used in the first seven versions of the Delphi environment. Then it was replaced by a version also called Delphi.

Standards / Standards

In 1983, the language was standardized in the international standard ISO / IEC 7185, as well as several local standards specific to each country, including the American standard ANSI / IEEE770X3.97-1983 and ISO 7185: 1983. The difference between the two standards is that the ISO standard has the “level 1”, extension of the conforming arrays, whereas ANSI did not allow this extension to the original language (Wirth version). In 1989, ISO 7185 (ISO 7185: 1990) was revised to correct various errors and ambiguities found in the original document
 
In 1990, an ISO / IEC 10206 standard was created standardizing Pascal. In 1993, the ANSI standard was replaced with a “pointer” to ISO 7185: 1990, which effectively terminates its status as a different standard.
 
ISO 7185 was stated to be a Wirth clarification of the language as detailed in 1974 in the User’s and Report’s Manual [Jensen and Wirth], but was also notable for the inclusion of “conforming array parameters” as a level 1 of the Norm, being level 0 Pascal without Conforming Arrays.
 
Note that Niklaus Wirth himself refers to the 1974 language as the “standard”, for example, to differentiate it from the specific machine-level implementation features of the CDC 6000 compiler. This language was documented in “The Pascal Report”, the Second part of “Pascal users manual and report”.
 
On large machines (mainframes and minicomputers) general patterns were followed. At IBM-PC, they were not. In IBM-PC, Turbo Pascal and Delphi, Borland standard, has the largest number of users. Thus, it is of extreme importance to understand whether a particular application corresponds to the original language Pascal, Borland or a dialect thereof.
 
The language versions of IBM-PC began to diverge with UCSD Pascal, an application that implemented several extensions to the language, along with various omissions and changes. Many features of the UCSD language survive today, including in Borlands languages.

Syntax

The Pascal language was created to encourage modular and structured programming, facilitating the creation of procedures with low coupling and high cohesion. A program in Pascal is composed of constants and global variables, procedures and re-entrant functions and a main program.
Procedures do not return values, functions do. In both procedures and functions parameters can be passed by reference or by value. You can pass vectors and arrays with the size, but not the number of dimensions, specified at runtime.
Procedures and functions may contain, within their scope, new procedures and functions. Within any part of the program you can also create blocks with the BEGIN and END commands, which also have their own scope. In the original versions, the variables could only be declared in specific positions and not during the program, which limited the scope rule.

The set of predefined procedures and functions is fixed and includes the read, readln, write, and writeln functions to perform I / O.

Free Compilers

There are several free Pascal compilers, such as:
  • Chrome is the next generation of Object Pascal for .NET and Mono platforms, developed by RemObjects Software
  • Free Pascal is a powerful compiler written in Pascal, distributed under the GNU GPL license. It can be used in conjunction with code written in Turbo Pascal or Delphi, and can be used across multiple platforms and operating systems
  • GNU Pascal Compiler (GPC) is the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) standard compiler. The compiler was written in C, but most of the language’s function library is written in Pascal. It follows the ANSI / ISO standards and most of the Borland / Turbo Pascal standards. Delphi support is still limited
  • Kylix is ​​a version of Delphi for the Linux operating system, and its compiler and   development interface is free for non-commercial use, but its component library is not. The compiler source code is expected to open shortly
  • P4 compiler, used for the development of several Pascal compilers written in Pascal, including the UCSD p-System
  • Pascalzim is a free compiler that was developed at the University of Brasilia and is used in various programming introduction disciplines at UnB and other universities.
  • Turbo Pascal was the main Pascal compiler for PCs during the 80s and early 90s, owing its popularity to its great power and small compilation time. Today, its older versions (up to version 5.5) can be downloaded for free from the Borland website (registration required)
  • Virtual Pascal was created by Vitaly Miryanov in 1995 as a native compiler for OS / 2, compatible with Borland’s Pascal syntax. It was later commercially released by fPrint, adding to it Win32 support, becoming a freeware in 2000. It can now be compiled for Win32, OS / 2 and Linux platforms, and is largely compatible with Borland Pascal And Delphi
An extensive list of compilers can be found in Pascaland. The site is written in French, but that does not make much of a difference since it’s just a list of URLs for compilers.

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