Understanding PHP concepts

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PHP (a recursive acronym for “PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor”, originally Personal Home Page) is a free interpreted language originally used only for the development of present and server-side applications capable of generating dynamic content on the World Wide Web. It is among the first languages ​​that can be inserted into HTML documents, and in many cases the use of external files is not required for any data processing. The code is interpreted on the server side by the PHP module, which also generates the webpage to be viewed on the client side. The language evolved, started to offer command line functionality, and in addition, gained additional features, which enabled additional uses of PHP, not related to web sites. You can install PHP on most operating systems, free. As a direct competitor of Microsoft-owned ASP technology, PHP is used in applications such as MediaWiki, Facebook, Drupal, Joomla, WordPress, Magento and Oscommerce.

Created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995, PHP has produced its main implementation, formal reference of the language, maintained by an organization called The PHP Group. PHP is free software, licensed under the PHP License, a license incompatible with the GNU General Public License (GPL) due to restrictions on the use of the term PHP.

History


The language was created in 1994 and the source code of PHP was only released in 1995 as a package of CGI programs created by Rasmus Lerdorf under the name Personal Home Page Tools to replace a set of Perl scripts that he used in the development of Your personal page. In 1997 the new language package with the name of PHP / FI was introduced, bringing the Forms Interpreter tool, an interpreter of SQL commands. Later, Zeev Suraski developed the PHP 3 parser that had the first object-oriented feature, which was able to reach a few packets, had inheritance, and gave developers only the ability to implement properties and methods. Shortly thereafter, Zeev and Andi Gutmans wrote PHP 4, completely abandoning PHP 3, Giving more power to the language machine and greater number of object-oriented features. The serious problem that presented PHP 4 was the creation of copies of objects, because the language still did not work with pointers or handlers, as they are the languages ​​Java, Ruby and others. The problem was solved in the current version of PHP, version 5, which already works with handlers. If you copy an object, in fact we will copy a pointer, because if there is any change in the original version of the object, all the others also undergo the change, which was not the case in PHP 4.

It is a highly modularized language, which makes it ideal for installation and use on web servers. Several modules are created in the PHP Extension Community Library (PECL) repository and some of these modules are introduced as standard in new language versions. It is very similar, in data types, syntax and even functions, with C language and with C ++. It may be, depending on the server configuration, embedded in the HTML code. There are PHP versions available for the following operating systems: Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, Mac OS, OS / 2, AS / 400, Novell Netware, RISC OS, AIX, IRIX and Solaris.

It’s easy to build a dynamic database-based page that is simple with PHP, and it supports a large number of databases: Oracle, Sybase, PostgreSQL, InterBase, MySQL, SQLite, MSSQL, Firebird, Etc., being able to abstract the bank with the ADOdb library, among others. Wikipedia works on software written entirely in PHP using MySQL databases: MediaWiki.

PHP supports protocols: IMAP, SNMP, NNTP, POP3, HTTP, LDAP, XML-RPC, SOAP. It is possible to open sockets and interact with other protocols. And third-party libraries further expand these features. There are initiatives to use PHP as a programming language for fixed systems. Most notable is PHP-GTK. It is a set of PHP with the GTK library, ported from C ++, thus making interoperable software between Windows and Linux. In practice, this extension has been little used for real projects.


PHP License is free and open source software published under the PHP License, which states:

Products derived from this software should not be called PHP, nor may it contain “PHP” on your behalf, without the prior written permission of group@php.net. You can indicate that the software works in conjunction with PHP by saying “Foo to PHP” instead of calling it “PHP Foo” or “phpfoo”. 
This restriction on the use of the PHP name makes it incompatible with the GNU General Public License (GPL).

PHP 6 and Unicode
PHP received several criticisms for not having native Unicode support. In 2005, a project led by Andrei Zmievski was started to bring such support to PHP through the incorporation of the International Components for Unicode (ICU) library in order to be able to use UTF-16 encoding. Since this would cause major changes in both the source code and the user, it was planned to release it in version 6.0 in conjunction with other important features, then in development, instead of 5.5.

However, due to the lack of developers who understood the required changes and performance issues resulting from UTF-16 conversion, which is rarely used in a web context, it led to delays in the project. As a result, PHP 5.3 was released in 2009, without full Unicode support, but containing some of the new features that would be released in PHP 6.0. In March 2010, the project in its current form was officially abandoned, and a version 5.4 of PHP was still made without full Unicode support, also containing the news that would be released in PHP 6.0. Initial hopes were that a new plan would be formed to have Unicode integration, but as of 2014 none was adopted.

Over the years, prior to the release of PHP 5.3 and 5.4, some books were published based on the expected PHP 6.0 feature set, including Unicode support and features that were later brought to other releases. There is, therefore, some debate as to whether a new major version of PHP, with or without Unicode support, should be called “PHP 6”, or whether naming should be bypassed to avoid confusion.

Extensions
PHP Extensions:
  • Bzip2 compression functions
  • Calendar Conversion Functions
  • ClibPDF Functions
  • Crack Functions
  • Ctype Functions Family
  • Client routines library URL – CURL
  • Cybercash Payment Functions
  • DBM Functions
  • DBA Database Abstraction Functions Layer
  • DBase Functions
  • Dbx Functions
  • DOM XML Functions
  • .NET Functions
  • EXIF Functions
  • FrontBase Functions
  • FDF Forms Data Format Functions.
  • FilePro Functions
  • FTP Functions
  • Functions of the GD image library
  • Gettext functions
  • HyperWave Functions
  • ICONV character table conversion
  • Informix Functions
  • IIS Handling Functions
  • IMAP Functions POP3 and NNTP
  • Functions of Ingres II
  • InterBase Functions
  • Java Functions
  • LDAP Functions
  • Multi-Byte String Functions
  • Mcrypt Encryption Functions
  • Mash Functions
  • Mimetype Functions
  • Ming to Flash Functions
  • MSQL Functions
  • MSSQL Functions
  • MySQL Functions
  • MySQL Functions
  • Oracle 8 Features
  • OpenSSL Functions
  • Oracle Functions
  • Object Overload Functions
  • PDF Functions
  • PostgreSQL Functions
  • Printer Functions
  • Shared Memory Functions
  • SNMP get and walk functions
  • SOAP Functions
  • Socket Functions
  • SQLite Functions
  • Sybase Functions
  • Tidy Functions
  • Tokenizer Functions
  • W32api Functions
  • XML-RPC Functions
  • XSLT Functions
  • Functions of YAZ
  • Functions for Zip Files
  • ZLib Compression Functions

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