What is File Transfer Protocol or FTP?

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FTP  or  File Transfer Protocol  (in Portuguese,  File Transfer Protocol ) is a fairly quick and versatile way to transfer files (Portugal: Known as files), one of the most used on the Internet.
It can refer to both the protocol and the program that implements this protocol (FTP server, in this case, traditionally appears in lowercase letters, influenced by the Unix file transfer program).
Data transfer in computer networks usually involves transferring files and accessing remote file systems (with the same interface used in local files). FTP (RFC 959) is based on TCP, but it predates the TCP / IP protocol stack and is later adapted to TCP / IP. It is the standard TCP / IP stack for transferring files, it is a generic protocol independent of hardware.

How file transfer occurs

The transfer of files takes place between a computer called “client” (the one requesting the connection for data transfer) and a server (the one receiving the transfer request). The user, through specific software, can select which files to send or receive from the server. In order to exist a connection to the server, if the server requires, the user informs a user name (or  username ) and a password  password , as well as the correct name of the server or its IP address.
If the data has been entered correctly, the connection can be established.

FTP client-server mode

The remote server accepts a   local client control connection . The client sends commands to the server and the connection persists throughout the session (this is a protocol that uses TCP).
The server creates a  data connection for data  transfer, creating a connection for each transferred file. This data is transferred from the server to the client and vice versa.
The commands are separated from the data and the client can send commands during data transfer. Closing the connection indicates the end of the file.

FTP messages

FTP allows two FTP message transfer modes:  text  (with appropriate translations) or  binary  (no translation). Each server message includes a 3-digit decimal identifier (example:)  226 Transfer complete. These messages can be viewed or not, using the verb mode  if  or  remove , respectively.
What is the best File Transfer program?
 In my opinion FileZilla is one of the best or best for  File Transfer
FileZilla  is an open source FTP, SFTP and FTPS client for Microsoft Windows and GNU / Linux. It is distributed under the GNU General Public License. Since March 1, 2007, it ranks 9th in the list of most downloaded SourceForge, removing names such as phpBB, Pidgin and MinGW.
There is a version of the portable program called FileZilla Portable. With it, you can run FileZilla directly from a portable hard drive as a pen drive.
List of FTP Commands
The following commands can be executed in FTP through the command line. FTP commands can be abbreviated as long as they do not form ambiguous expressions.
Commands can be abbreviated. Here are the commands:
  • !: Performs the command on the local machine.
  • ?: Similar to help.
  • append: Adds data to an existing file.
  • ascii: Sets the file transfer type to ASCII.
  • bell: Beeps when a command is executed.
  • binary: Sets the file transfer type to binary.
  • bye: Close the FTP session.
  • cd: Followed path / directory changes to the directory you entered.
  • delete: Delete a file. For more than one file, use  mdelete .
  • debug: Establishes the debug mode.
  • dir: Displays the contents of the current server directory.
  • disconnect: Similar to  bye .
  • get: They get a file from the server. For more than one file, use  mget .
  • glob: Selects the expansion for file names.
  • hash: Demonstrates each block of the file during the transfer. Each block consists of 1024 bytes.
  • help: Summarily lists all available commands.
  • literal: Allows you to send arbitrary commands.
  • ls: Displays an abbreviated list of the contents of the server directory. For more than one folder, use * mls .
  • mkdir: Creates a directory or subdirectory on the server.
  • prompt: Activate / deactivate the interactive mode.
  • put: Sends a file to the server. To send more than one file, use  mput .
  • pwd: Shows the working directory.
  • quit: End the FTP session.
  • quote: Sends FTP server subcommands as they are on the server.
  • recv: Similar to  get .
  • remotehelp: Request help from the remote FTP server.
  • rename: Renames a file.
  • send: Similar to  put .
  • status: Gets server status information.
  • trace: Demonstrates the path traveled by the file in the download.
  • type: Specifies the type of representation.
  • user: Log on to the server.
  • verbose: Enables / disables the literal mode.
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