What is JavaScript? And What is His History?

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Hello personal Master Programming today  we will explain better what and JavaScript and understanding how it works and some logic.

JavaScript is an interpreted programming language. It was originally implemented as part of web browsers so that scripts could be run on the client side and interact with the user without the need for this script to go through the server, controlling the browser, performing asynchronous communication and changing the contents of the displayed document.

It is currently the main language for client-side programming in web browsers. It also starts being heavily used on the server side through environments such as node.js. It is designed to be a prototype-based object-oriented scripting language, weak and dynamic typing and first-class functions. It supports functional programming and features features such as locks and high order functions commonly unavailable in popular languages ​​such as Java and C ++.

It is based on ECMAScript standardized by Ecma international in the ECMA-262 specifications

The following features are common to all implementations conforming to ECMAScript.

Imperative and Structured JavaScript supports the structured programming syntax elements of the C language (for example, if, while, switch). One exception is the scope issue: C-style blocking is not supported, instead JavaScript uses function-level scope. JavaScript 1.7, however, supports block-level scoping through the let command. Like C, JavaScript distinguishes between expressions and commands. A syntactical difference of C is that the line break automatically terminates the command, with the semicolon being optional at the end of the command.

Object-based JavaScript is almost entirely object-based. JavaScript objects are associative arrays, Augmented with prototypes. The property names of an object are strings: obj.x = 10 and obj [“x”] = 10 are equivalent, the point in this example is syntactic only. Properties and their values ​​can be added, changed, or deleted at run time. Most properties of an object (and those in its inheritance chain via prototype) can be enumerated using a for … in repetition structure. JavaScript has a small number of default language objects such as window and document.Most properties of an object (and those in its inheritance chain via prototype) can be enumerated using a for … in repetition structure. JavaScript has a small number of default language objects such as window and document. Most properties of an object (and those in its inheritance chain via prototype) can be enumerated using a for … in repetition structure. JavaScript has a small number of default language objects such as window and document.

Run-time evaluation

JavaScript includes a function  eval that can execute language commands that are written to a string at runtime.
First class functions [edit | Edit source-code]
In JavaScript the functions are first class, that is, they are objects that have properties and methods, and can be passed as arguments, assigned to variables, or returned as any other object.
JavaScript was originally developed by Brendan Eich when working on Netscape under the name Mocha, later had its name changed to LiveScript and finally JavaScript. LiveScript was the official name of the language when it was first released in the beta version of Netscape 2.0 browser in September 1995 but had its name changed in a joint announcement with Sun Microsystems in December 1995 when it was deployed in Netscape browser version 2.0 B3.
The change of name from LiveScript to JavaScript coincided with the time when Netscape added support for Java technology in its browser (Applets). The final choice of the name caused confusion giving the impression that the language was based on java, and that choice was characterized by many as a marketing strategy of Netscape to take advantage of the newly released Java.
JavaScript quickly gained broad acceptance as a client-side scripting language for web pages. As a result, Microsoft has developed a dialect compatible with the JScript name language to avoid trademark issues. JScript added new methods to fix date-related JavaScript methods that had problems [citation needed]. JScript was included in Internet Explorer 3.0, released in August 1996. JavaScript and Jscript are so similar that the two terms are commonly used interchangeably.Microsoft does, however, declare many features in which JScript does not conform to the ECMA specification.
In November 1996 Netscape announced that it had submitted JavaScript to Ecma International as an industry standard candidate and the subsequent work resulted in the standardized version called ECMAScript.
JavaScript has become the most popular programming language on the web. Initially, however, many professionals denigrated the language because it had as its main target the lay public. With the advent of Ajax, JavaScript had its popularity back and received more professional attention.The result has been the proliferation of frameworks and libraries, improved programming practices and increased use of JavaScript outside the browser environment, as well as the use of server-side JavaScript platforms.
In January 2009 the CommonJS project was founded with the goal of specifying a standard library for off-browser JavaScript development.
Nested Functions
‘Internal’ or ‘nested’ functions are functions defined within other functions. They are created each time the function containing them (external) is invoked. In addition, the scope of the external function, including constants, local variables, and argument values, becomes part of the internal state of each object created from the internal function, even after the execution of the internal function is completed.
JavaScript allows nested functions to be created with the lexical scope at the time of their definition and has the operator () to invoke them at a later time. This combination of code that can be executed out of the scope in which it was defined, with its own scope during execution, is called, within the science of computing, closure.
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