What is Python?

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Python is a high-level programming language, interpreted, scripted, imperative, object-oriented, functional, dynamic and strong typing. It was launched by Guido van Rossum in 1991. It currently has a community development model, open and managed by the nonprofit Python Software Foundation. Although several parts of language have formal standards and specifications, the language as a whole is not formally specified. The de facto standard is the CPython implementation.

The language was designed with the philosophy of emphasizing the importance of the programmer’s effort on computational effort. Prioritize the readability of the code over speed or expressiveness. It combines concise and clear syntax with the powerful features of its standard library and modules and frameworks developed by third parties.

Python is a high-level, multi-paradigm general-purpose language, supports the object-oriented, imperative, functional, and procedural paradigm. It has dynamic typing and one of its main features is to allow easy code reading and require few lines of code if compared to the same program in other languages. Due to its characteristics, it is mainly used for word processing, scientific data and CGI creation for dynamic web pages.

The name Python had its origin in the British humorous group Monty Python, creator of the program Monty Python’s Flying Circus, although many people make association with the reptile of the same name (in Portuguese, python or python).


Python was conceived in late 1989 by Guido van Rossum at the National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science (CWI) in the Netherlands as a successor to ABC able to handle exceptions and provide interface with the Amoeba operating system through Scripts. Also from CWI, the ABC language was more productive than C, albeit with the cost of runtime performance. But it did not have important functionalities for interaction with the operating system, a necessity of the group. One of Python’s primary focuses was to increase programmer productivity.
Python was made based on the ABC language, has some of the C-derived syntax, list comprehension, anonymous functions, and Haskell’s map function. The iterators are based on Icon, Exception Treatments, and Modula-3 Modules, Perl Regular Expressions.
In 1991, Guido published the code (named version 0.9.0) in the discussion group  alt.source. In this version they were already present classes with inheritance, exception handling, functions and data types native  list,  dict,  str, and so on. Also included in this version was a module system borrowed from Modula-3. The exception model also closely resembled that of Modula-3, with the addition of the else clause option  . In 1994 the main discussion forum for Python was formed, comp.lang.python, a milestone for the growth of the language user base.
Version 1.0 was released in January 1994. New features include tools for functional programming as  lambda,  map,  filter and  reduce. The last version while Guido was on CWI was Python 1.2. In 1995, he continued work at the CNRI in Reston, United States, from where he released several versions. In version 1.4 the language gained named parameters (the ability to pass parameter by name rather than by position in parameter list) and native support to complex numbers, as well as a form of encapsulation.
Also at CNRI, Guido launched the Computer Programming for Everybody initiative   (CP4E, literally “Computer Programming for All”), which aimed to make programming more accessible, a DARPA-funded project. CP4E is currently inactive.
In 2000, the language development team moved to BeOpen to form the PythonLabs team. CNRI asked for version 1.6 to be released to mark the end of language development at that location. The only release on BeOpen was Python 2.0, and after the release the PythonLabs developer group was grouped into Digital Creations.
Python 2.0 implemented list comprehension, a relevant functionality of functional languages ​​like SETL and Haskell. The language syntax for this construct is quite similar to that of Haskell, except for Haskell’s preference for punctuation characters and python preference for reserved alphabetic words. This version 2.0 also introduced a garbage collector system capable of identifying and handling reference cycles.
1.6 included a substantially longer CNRI license than the CWI license they were using in previous releases. Among other changes, this license included a clause stating that the license was governed by the laws of Virginia. The Free Software Foundation claimed that this was incompatible with the GNU GPL. Both BeOpen and CNRI and FSF negotiated a change to the free Python license that would make it compatible with the GPL. Python 1.6.1 is identical to 1.6.0, except for minor bug fixes and a new, GPL compatible license.
Python 2.1 was similar to versions 1.6.1 and 2.0. Your license has been renamed to Python Software Foundation License. All code, documentation, and specification since the release of alpha version 2.1 is owned by the Python Software Foundation (PSF), a nonprofit organization founded in 2001, a model of the Apache Software Foundation. The release included the change in specification to support nested scope, as well as other languages ​​with static scope. This functionality was disabled by default, and was only required in version 2.2.
A major innovation of version 2.2 was the unification of Python types (written in C) and classes (written in Python) in only one hierarchy. This made the Python object model consistently object-oriented. Also added was generator, inspired by  Icon .
The increment of the standard library and syntactic choices were strongly influenced by Java in some cases: the package  loggingintroduced in version 2.3, the SAX syntax analyzer introduced in version 2.0 and the decorators syntax it uses  @, added in version 2.4.
On October 1, 2008 was released version 2.6, already aiming at the transition to version 3.0 of the language. Other modifications included libraries for multiprocessing, JSON and I / O, as well as a new way of formatting strings.
Currently the language is used in several areas, such as application servers and computer graphics. It is available as a scripting language in applications such as OpenOffice (Python UNO Bridge), Blender, and can be used in procedures stored in the PostgreSQL (PL / Python) database manager system.
The third version of the language was released in December 2008, called Python 3.0 or Python 3000. With news reported since before its release, there was breach of compatibility with the 2.x family to fix flaws that were discovered in this pattern, and to clean the Of previous versions.  The first  alpha version  was released on  August 31,  2007, the second on  December 7 of  the same year.
Version changes include changing the reserved word  print, which becomes a function, making it easier to use an alternate version of the routine. In Python 2.6, this is already available when you add the code  from __future__ import print_function. Also, change to Unicode all strings.
In 2012, Raspberry Pi was created, whose name was based on the Python language. One of the main languages ​​chosen is Python. Python influenced several languages, some of them were Boo and Cobra, which uses indentation as a block definition and Go, which is based on the principles of Python’s rapid development.
Currently, Python is one of the standard components of various operating systems, among which are most Linux distributions, AmigaOS 4, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and OS X. The language has become the standard in the MIT computing science course at 2009

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Python constructs include: select structure (if, else, elif); (For, while), which iterates through a container, capturing each element in a given local variable; Class construction; Construction of subroutines (def); Scope construction (with), for example to acquire a resource.

Python constructs include: select structure (if, else, elif); (For, while), which iterates through a container, capturing each element in a given local variable; Class construction; Construction of subroutines (def); Scope construction (with), for example to acquire a resource.


Python was developed to be an easy-to-read language with a pleasant look, often using words and non-scores as in other languages. For the separation of code blocks, the language uses whitespace and indentation instead of visual delimiters such as keys (C, Java) or words (BASIC, Fortran, Pascal). Unlike languages ​​with visual block delimiters, in Python indentation is mandatory. The increase of the indentation indicates the beginning of a new block, which finishes the reduction of the indentation.
Using a common text editor is very easy to have indentation errors, it is recommended to configure the editor according to Python lexical analysis or use an IDE. All IDEs that support language automatically indent.

Available platforms
The language and its interpreter are available for the most diverse platforms, from Unix (Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, MacOS X, etc.), Windows, .NET, old MacOS versions to gaming consoles or even some cell phones, Such as the Nokia 60 series, N8xx (PyMaemo) and palmtops.

For some unsupported operating system, it is enough that there is an available C compiler and generate Python from the source. The source code is translated by the interpreter into the bytecode format, which is cross-platform and can be executed and distributed without an original source.

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